The bones of our body make up a skeleton. The skeleton forms about 18% of the weight of the human body.
The skeleton of the trunk mainly consists of spinal column made of a number of bony segments called vertebrae to which the head, the thoracic cavity and the pelvic bones are connected. The spinal column consists of 26 spinal column bones.
The human vertebrae are divided into differentiated groups. The seven most superior of them are the vertebrae called the cervical vertebrae. The first cervical vertebra is the atlas. The second vertebra is called the axis.
Inferior to the cervical vertebrae are twelve thoracic vertebrae. There is one rib connected to each thoracic vertebrae, making 12 pairs of ribs. Most of the rib pairs come together ventrally and join a flat bone called the sternum.
The first pairs or ribs are short. All seven pairs join the sternum directly and are sometimes called the «true ribs». Pairs 8, 9, 10 are «fal-se ribs». The eleventh and twelfth pairs of ribs are the «floating ribs».
Inferior to the thoracic vertebrae are five lumbar vertebrae. The lumbar vertebrae are the largest and the heaviest of the spinal column. Inferior to the lumbar vertebrae are five sacral vertebrae forming a strong bone in adults. The most inferior group of vertebrae are four small vertebrae forming together the соссух.
The vertebral column is not made up of bone alone. It also has cartilages.
skeleton – скелет
make up – составлять
weight – вес
trunk – туловище
mainly – главным образом
thoracic cavity – грудная впадина
axis – ось
spinal column – позвоночник
inferior – низший
rib – ребро
pair – пара
sacral – сакральный
соссух – копчик
floating – плавающий
forming – формирующий
cartilage – хрящ
Если после конструкции there is (there are) стоит неисчисляе-мое существительное во множественном числе, вместо опущенного неопределенного артикля часто (не обязательно) употребляется слово «some».
Вставьте артикль, где необходимо.
1. There is… sofa in… corner of… room.
2. There are… cushions on… sofa
3. There are… books on… shelf. Give me… book, please.
4. Look into… refrigerator. What can you see on… shelves?
5. There is… butter in… butter-dish.
6. There is. sausage, but there is no… cheese.
7. There are… eggs,… apples.
8. There is… orange,… lemon, and… some jam in… little vase.
9. There is juice in this… cup. May I drink… juice?
10. There are… girls in… yard, but I can see no… boys. Where are… boys?
11… boys are playing football at… stadium.
12. I have. colour TV-set… TV-set is on… little table in… corner of… room.
13. There is… book,… pen, and… paper on my… writing-desk.
14. My… brother is… teacher. He works at… school.
15. He has… very good books. His… books are in… big bookcase.
16. There is… tea in my… glass. There is no… tea in my… friend’s… glass.
17. His… glass is empty.
18. Where is… coffee-table in your… room? -… coffee-table is in… front of… sofa
19. There is… cup on… coffee-table and… newspa pers.
20. There is. coffee in… cup.
Answer the questions.
1. What do the bones of our body make up?
2. How many per cents does the skeleton form?
3. What does the skeleton of the trunk mainly consist of?
4. How many bones does the spinal column consist of?
5. What groups are the human vertebrae divided into?
6. How many groups are the most superior?
7. How is the first cervical vertebra called?
8. Are the first pairs or ribs short?
9. How is the second vertebra called?
10. What forms the соссух?
Make the sentences of your own using the new words (10 sentences).
Find the definite and indefinite articles in the text.